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Önə Çıxan Kitablar »

Matthew D. Herron, Peter L. Conlin, William C. Ratcliff

Among the most important innovations in the history of life is the transition from single-celled organisms to more complex, multicellular organisms. Multicellularity has evolved repeatedly across the tree of life, resulting in the evolution of new kinds of organisms that collectively constitute a significant portion of Earth’s biodiversity and have transformed the biosphere. This volume examines the origins and subsequent evolution of multicellularity, reviewing the types of multicellular groups that exist, their evolutionary relationships, the processes that led to their evolution, and the conceptual frameworks in which their evolution is understood.

Matthew Cobb

This is the story of our quest to understand the most mysterious object in the universe: the human brain.

Today we tend to picture it as a computer. Earlier scientists thought about it in their own technological terms: as a telephone switchboard, or a clock, or all manner of fantastic mechanical or hydraulic devices. Could the right metaphor unlock the its deepest secrets once and for all?

Stephen Jay Gould

How smart are you? If that question doesn’t spark a dozen more questions in your mind (like “What do you mean by ‘smart,'” “How do I measure it” and “Who’s asking?”), then The Mismeasure of Man, Stephen Jay Gould’s masterful demolition of the IQ industry, should be required reading. Gould’s brilliant, funny, engaging prose dissects the motivations behind those who would judge intelligence, and hence worth, by cranial size, convolutions, or score on extremely narrow tests. How did scientists decide that intelligence was unipolar and quantifiable? Why did the standard keep changing over time? Gould’s answer is clear and simple: power maintains itself. European men of the 19th century, even before Darwin, saw themselves as the pinnacle of creation and sought to prove this assertion through hard measurement. Gould’s now-classic work delves into the difficult history of efforts into quantifying intelligence and using such measures to justify social inequalities. (Source: Goodreads)

Başqaları Yazırlar »

Getting hold of the right equipment can be costly, so here’s a primer for cash-strapped principal investigators.
Koronavirus böhranı və iqlim dəyişikliyi su çatışmazlığı problemini daha aşkar edir. Məqalə Kür çayı çərçivəsində su çatışmazlığının gender təsirini araşdırır.
Far from being profoundly destructive, we humans have deep capacities for sharing resources with generosity and foresight

Akademik İcmallar »

Inequality is one of the main drivers of social tension. We show striking similarities between patterns of inequality between species abundances in nature and wealth in society. We demonstrate that in the absence of equalizing forces, such large inequality will arise from chance alone. While natural enemies have an equalizing effect in nature, inequality in societies can be suppressed by wealth-equalizing institutions. However, over the past millennium, such institutions have been weakened during periods of societal upscaling. Our analysis suggests that due to the very same mathematical principle that rules natural communities (indeed, a “law of nature”) extreme wealth inequality is inevitable in a globalizing world unless effective wealth-equalizing institutions are installed on a global scale.

Maarten P. Scholl, Anisoara Calinescu, and J. Doyne Farmer, 2021
We develop the mathematical analogy between financial trading strategies and biological species and show how to apply standard concepts from ecology to financial markets. We analyze the interactions of stereotypical trading strategies in ecological terms, showing that they can be competitive, predator–prey, or mutualistic, depending on the wealth invested in each strategy. The deterministic dynamics suggest that the system should evolve toward an efficient state where all strategies make the same average returns. However, this happens slowly and the evolution is so noisy that there are large fluctuations away from the efficient state, causing bursts of volatility and extended periods where prices deviate from fundamental values. This provides a conceptual framework that gives insight into the reasons why markets malfunction.
Paramecium is a unicellular organism that swims in fresh water by beating thousands of cilia. When it is stimulated (mechanically, chemically, optically, thermally…), it often swims backward then turns and swims forward again. This “avoiding reaction” is triggered by a calcium-based action potential. For this reason, some authors have called Paramecium a “swimming neuron.” This review summarizes current knowledge about the physiological basis of behavior of Paramecium.

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