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Azərbaycan SSR-nin dağılmasından sonra onun yerini alan Azərbaycan Respublikası dövründə Sovet dövrünü xarakterizə edən sənaye kompleksi sürətlə dağıdılmış, böyük həcmdəki ictimai mülk isə uzun sürən özəlləşdirmə proqramları vasitəsilə özəlləşdirilərək yuxarı sinfin istifadəsinə verilmişdir.

XX əsrdə feminizmin əsas əsərlərindən olan Simone de Beauvoir-ın “İkinci Cins” kitabında yer almış “Bioloji Məlumatlar” fəslinin icmalı. Fəsildə Beauvoir qadın-kişi bərabərsizliyini müdafiə edən, ona haqq qazandıran bir çox arqumentlərə və ehkamlaşmış fikirlərə qarşı çıxır, biologiyanı insanın, o cümlədən, qadının mahiyyəti, alın yazısı kimi qəbul edən mahiyyətçi zehniyyətə qarşı öz ekzistensialist mövqeyini ortaya qoyur.

Degrowth is a call to decolonize the social imaginary from the ideology of a one-way future consisting only of growth. Degrowth is not the same thing as recession. It is the hypothesis that we can achieve prosperity without economic growth.

As Marxist geographer David Harvey argues, forty years of neoliberalism has left the public totally exposed and ill prepared to face a public health crisis on the scale of coronavirus. What are the consequences of the spread of the new coronavirus on the capitalist mode of production?

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are two highly transmissible and pathogenic viruses that emerged in humans at the beginning of the 21st century. Both viruses likely originated in bats, and genetically diverse coronaviruses that are related to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were discovered in bats worldwide. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of these two pathogenic coronaviruses and discuss their receptor usage; we also highlight the diversity and potential of spillover of bat-borne coronaviruses, as evidenced by the recent spillover of swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) to pigs.

For about 50 yr, ice cores have provided a wealth of information about past climatic and environmental changes. Ice cores from Greenland, Antarctica and other glacier-covered regions now encompass a variety of time scales. However, the longer time scales (e.g. at least back to the Last Glacial period) are covered by deep ice cores, the number of which is still very limited: seven from Greenland, with only one providing an undisturbed record of a part of the last interglacial period, and a dozen from Antarctica, with the longest record covering the last 800 000 yr. This article aims to summarize this successful adventure initiated by a few pioneers and their teams and to review key scientific results by focusing on climate (in particular water isotopes) and climate-related (e.g. greenhouse gases) reconstructions.

Benefits of increased size and functional specialization of cells have repeatedly promoted the evolution of multicellular organisms from unicellular ancestors. Many requirements for multicellular organization (cell adhesion, cell-cell communication and coordination, programmed cell death) likely evolved in ancestral unicellular organisms. However, the evolution of multicellular organisms from unicellular ancestors may be opposed by genetic conflicts that arise when mutant cell lineages promote their own increase at the expense of the integrity of the multicellular organism. Numerous defenses limit such genetic conflicts, perhaps the most important being development from a unicell, which minimizes conflicts from selection among cell lineages, and redistributes genetic variation arising within multicellular individuals between individuals. With a unicellular bottleneck, defecting cell lineages rarely succeed beyond the life span of the multicellular individual.

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